This week we evaluate the Copernicus heliocentric model of the solar system and compare it to Ptolemy's geocentric model. We then look at the model's reception by Erasmus Reinhold, Gemma Frisius, Michael Maestlin and Tycho Brahe. We conclude with Brahe's observations of the supernova of 1572 and the Great Comet of 1577.
To see a simulation showing the equivalence of the various models, click on this link. The yellow dot is the Sun, the blue dot is the Earth and the red dot is Mars.
A continuation of the the biographies of Nicolas Copernicus and Georg Joachim Rheticus from the time of the two men's meeting through the end of Rheticus' life and the publication of his trigonometric tables. Rheticus' work on the Narratio and the publication will be discussed as will the tragic outcomes of his career. The timely encounter with Valentin Otto is also covered.
In this episode we take a look at the scientific work of Nicolas Copernicus including the Commentariolus and On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres. We look at the foundational principles of Copernicus' Heliocentric System and how it explains the motions of the planets.
A more in-depth look at the lives of Georg Peuerbach, Johannes de Regio Monte (aka, Johanes Muller, aka Regiomontanus) and Cardinal Basilios Bessarion with a specific focus on the years between 1454 and 1476. The development of the Epitome of the Almagest is discussed as is the role of astrology in late medieval and early modern culture, specifically in relation to the practice of medicine.
In this episode, we discuss the transition of European astronomy from the 13th century to the end of the 15th century. We spend some time taking a look at the effects of The Great Mortality on the institutions of Europe and consider the factors of the rediscovery of atomism, the development of the printing press, the Fall of Constantinople and the rise of the new universities of central and eastern Europe in creating the conditions that would allow for new ideas to develop and spread. We then conclude by looking at the work of Georg Peuerbach and Johannes Muller (Regiomontanus) that brings a full and complete understanding of the Hellenistic model Ptolemy.
This episode takes a look at the rise of the European university in the 12th century, the development of Scholasticism, the impact on the translations of Aristotle's works and the accompanying commentaries on it and the effects of the Condemnations of 1270 and 1277. From this, the challenges to Aristotle's formulation of physics and the terrestrial motion of objects are considered.
In the final episode in our trilogy on the philosophy of time, we look at J. M. E. McTaggart's essay, The Unreality of Time, and then work through various philosophical positions that arise from it. Included in the discussion are presentism, eternalism, the block universe model and the arrow of time.
In this episode we open the account of the temporal realist beginning with Isaac Newton and John Locke. We then look at the a priori idealism of Immanuel Kant before ending on the reformulation of physics by Albert Einstein and his concept of relativity in space-time.
We look at how various ancient philosophers and theologians conceptualized time. We look at the paradoxes of Eleatic school of Parmenides and Zeno, the response of Aristotle and the later reconsideration of the topic by Augustine. This week is spend looking at early versions of idealism and relationalism with just a brief mention of realist concepts like relativity and frames of reference.
We look at the development of the modern western calendar from prehistory through the time of the Roman Kings to the reforms of Julius Caesar (the Julian Calendar) and Pope Gregory XIII (the Gregorian Calendar). Modern attempts at calendar reform are also discussed including the World Calendar and the International Fixed Calendar.
We look at the rediscovery of astronomical texts by western Europe from the time of the Plague of Justinian to the Great Mortality. The work of Martianus Capella, Isidore of Seville, Gerard of Cremona, Averroes and Johannes of Sacrobosco is examined and placed in a wider historical context.
In this episode we look at the astronomical work done during the Golden Age of Islamic Science. This includes the work sponsored by the Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun, the work of al-Balkhi, al-Battani, al-Biruni and ibn al-Haytham. We conclude with material covering the Andalusian Revolt and the Maragha Revolution.
In this episode we look at the role of astronomy in the culture of the Inca Empire and Kogi Tribe. We examine the Cusco, Coricancha and the ceques and huacas that embody Inca religious practice along with the city of Machu Picchu. Finally, we look at the woven universe of the Kogi tribe of northern Colombia.